1.0 Introduction

This 21st century has become an age of recycling where a lots of emphasize is placed on reuse of material to curb current environmental problems and maximize use of depleting natural resources and energy conservation. Modern day sustainable use and management of resource recommend need to incorporate recycling culture in our ways of life including technological process. Biomass is not left behind in this; the use of biomass energy resource derived from the carbonaceous waste of various natural and human activities to produce electricity is becoming popular. Biomass is considered as one of the clean, more- efficient and more-stable means of power generation. And it has become imperative for marine industry to tap this new evolving power generation mode especially the use of micro generation approach considering the mobile nature of ships.

Biofuels exist in solid, liquid or gas form thereby potentially affecting three of our core markets. Solid biofuels or biomass tend to be used in external combustion, however its use in the shipping industry has been limited to liquid biofuel due to lack of appropriate information economics forecasts, Sources of biomass include by-products from the timber industry, agricultural crops, raw material from the forest, major parts of household waste, and demolition wood, all things being equal using pure biomass that do not affect human and ecological chain make it suitable energy source. Biomass has low sulfur content means biomass combustion therefore considered much less acidifying than with coal, for example. Also, the ashes from biomass consumption, which are very low in heavy metals, can be recycled.

One advantage of biomass compared to other renewable-based systems that require costly advanced technology (such as solar photovoltaics) is that biomass can generate electricity with the same type of equipment and power plants that now burn fossil fuels. Many innovations in power generation with other fossil fuels may also be adaptable to the use of biomass fuels. Various factors have hindered the growth of the renewable energy resource, however. Most biomass power plants operating today are characterized by low boiler and thermal-plant efficiencies; both the fuel’s characteristics and the small size of most facilities contribute to these efficiencies. In addition, such plants are costly to build.

Biomass remains potential renewable energy contributor to net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by offsetting CO2 from fossil generation. The current method generating biomass power is biomass fired boilers and Rankine steam turbines. Recent research work in developing sustainable, and economic biomass focus on high-pressure supercritical steam cycles , use of feedstock supply system, and conversion of biomass to a low or medium gas that can be fired in combustion turbine cycles, resulting in efficiencies one-and-a-half times that of a simple steam turbine. biofuels has potential to influence marine industry, and it as become importance for designers and ship owners to accept their influence on the world fleet of the future especially the micro generation concept with co generation for cargo and fuel for  ships.

The paper discuss conceptual work, trend , sociopolitical driver, economic, development, and future of biomass with hope to bring awareness to local, national and multinational bodies making biofuels policies as well as maritime multidisciplinary expertise in regulation, economics, engineering, and vessel design and operation. The paper also discusses how the shipping industry can take advantage of growing tide to tap benefit promised by waste use power generation system.

2.0 Biomass developmental trend

The concept of use of Biofuels for energy generation has has been existing concept, and in the face of challenges posed by environmental need, its growth is likely to dominate renewable energy market. Following the advent of peanut oil diesel engines developed by Rudolf Diesel in 1911 the production and use of biofuels worldwide has grown significantly in recent years. The current world biofuels market is focused on: Bioethanol blended into fossil motor gasoline (petrol) or used directly and biodiesel or Fatty Acid Methyl Ester diesel blended into fossil diesel. However the use of The Fischer-Tropsch model that involve catalyzed chemical reaction to produce a synthetic petroleum substitute, typically from coal, natural gas or biomass, for use as synthetic lubrication oil or as a synthetic fuel seem promising and negate risk posed by food based biomass. This synthetic fuel runs only in diesel engines and some aircraft engines. Oil, product and chemical tankers being constructed now are likely to benefit much more from use of biomas. However use on gasoline engines ignites the vapors at much higher temperatures, which pose limitation to inland water craft.

Biomass generation and growing trend can be classified into 3 generation types:

  • first generation’ biofuels relate to biofuels made from sugar or starch, producing bioethanol, and vegetable oil or animal fats producing biodiesel. First generation biofuels provoke increasing criticism through their dependence on food crops and issues over biodiversity, land use and human rights. Hybrid technology for percentage blending is being employed to mitigate food production impact.
  • Second generation biofuels mitigate problem posed by the first generation biofuels. They do not affect food crops because they are made from waste biomass from agricultural and forestry, fast-growing grasses and trees specially grown as so-called “energy crops”. With technology, sustainability and cost issues to overcome, second-generation biofuels are still several years away from commercial viability and many second generation mass produced biofuels are still under development including the biomass to liquid. Fischer-Tropsch production technique.
  • third generation biofuels are green fuels like algae biofuel made from energy and biomass crops that have been designed in such a way that their structure or properties conform to the requirements of a particular bioconversion process. They are made from such as sewage, and grown on ponds.

Just like tanker revolution influence on ship type, demand for biomass will bring, will bring capacity, bio -material or completed product from source to production area and then to the point of use, will bring technological, environmental change will require ships of different configuration, size and tank coating type. As well as impact on the tonne mile demand will change accordingly.

Effect on shipping is likely to follow shipping large scale growth on exports and seaborne trade from key exporting regions, particularly South America. Brazil has a key role. Brazil has already been branded to be producing en-mass ethanol from sugar cane since the 1970s with a cost per unit reportedly the lowest in the world. And it is currently exploring ethanol

Table 1 – World ethanol consumption 2007


World ethanol consumption –

51 million tones, 2007

Us and brazil


EU and China –

17% – surplus of 0.1 million tones

US deficit –


EU deficit –

1.3 mt

World – deficit


Recent year is also witnessing  emerging trade on biofuel product between the US, EU, and Asia and whilst Brazil exports the most ethanol globally at about 2.9 million tonnes per year, the top importers of the US, EU,Japan and Korea have increasing demand that will have to be satisfied by increased shipping capacity. Seaborne vegetable oil supply is increasingly growing

Table 2 – Biofuel growth

Vegetable oil

33 mt in 2000 to 59 mt in 2008

Palm oil

13 mt in 2000 to 32 mt forecast in 2008.

a 7.5% p.a growth rate

Soya bean

7 mt to some 11.5 mt in 2008,


imports – 5.7 mt in 2001 to an expected 10.3 mt for 2008


3.1 mt in 2001 to 5.2 mt forecast for 2008


Production capacity- 1.9 mt in 2002 to 11 mt in 2007, with 2007.

50% of total capacity.

Recently biofuel is driving a new technology, Worldwide; the use of biofuels for cars and public vehicles has grown significantly. With excess capacity waiting for source material it seems inevitable that shipping demand will increase.

3.0 Inter industry Best Practice

3.1 Land based use – 

  • UK pumps mandate at least 2.5% biofuels. This target will rise to 5% by 2010. Also in the UK, the first train to run on biodiesel went into service in June 2007 for a six month trial period. The train uses a blended fuel, which is 20% biodiesel and the operator, Virgin Trains, is confident the mix can be increased to at least a 50% mix with the further possibility to run trains on fuels entirely from non-carbon sources.
  • On January 15, 2006- Central Ohio Transit Authority (COTA lunch a program to test a 20% blend of biodiesel (B20) in its buses. In two months they used approximately 45,000 gallons of B20. As a result of the test, in April 2006 they began using biodiesel fleet-wide. In addition to using B20 in the winter months, COTA has committed to using 50-90% biodiesel blends (B50 – B90) during the summer months. This is projected to decrease regular diesel fuel consumption by over one million gallons per year.
  • 26th of October 2007. buses in the UK running on B100 was launched on  In a pilot project. Argent Energy (UK) Limited is working together with Stagecoach to supply biodiesel made by recycling and processing animal fat and used cooking oil.
  • For power stations, B&W have orders in the EU for 45 MW of two-stroke biofuel engines with a thermal efficiency of 51-52%. Specifically, these operate on palm oil of varying quality, and in the future, it is expected that more engines, whether stationary or marine, will be developed to run on biofuels.

·         US DOE has funded five new advanced biomass gasification research and development projects beginning in 2001(Vermont project)

·         2008 – Ford announced a £1 billion research project to convert more of its vehicles to new biofuel sources. The first trial oft, Last year. BP Australia has now sold over 100 million liters of 10% ethanol content fuel to Australian motorists, and Brazil sells both 22% ethanol petrol nationwide and 100% ethanol to over 4 million cars, It is a trend that is gathering momentum.

  • In a program initiated by the Swedish National Board for Industrial and Technical Development in Stockholm, several Swedish universities, companies, and utilities are collaborating to accelerate the demonstration of the advanced EVGT for natural-gas firing, especially in small-scale units. A natural-gas-fired EVGT pilot plant (0.6 megawatts of power output for a simple gas-turbine cycle) should start operation in Lund, Sweden, in 1998.

·         AES Corporation is a leading company in biomass conversion internationally. At AES Kilroot in Northern Ireland, the team recently completed a successful trial to convert the plant to burn a mixture of coal and biomass. With further investment in the technology, nearly half of Northern Ireland’s 2012 renewable target could be met from AES Kilroot alone.

3.2 Aero industry–

  • Virgin Atlantic – Air transport is receiving increasing attention because of environmental concerns linked to CO2 emissions, air quality and noise. Virgin Atlantic in collaboration with Boeing and General Electric aircraft alternative fuels project for aircraft. A successful test flight from London to Amsterdam flight took place on 24th February of this year, running one of the four jumbo jet engines on a mixture of 20% coconut oil and babassu nut oil, with 80% conventional jet fuel. This fuel was specifically chosen due to its performance at low operating temperatures. The test was successful, with no noticeable difference in performance. Except that; imitation that biofuel mix used was in no way sustainable in the quantities required by the demands of the aviation industry. In a way to mitigate this Virgin is looking to us use of Algae based fuels as it is predicted that they may be suitable for use at low temperature.

3.3  Maritime industry 

  • The use of land based transportation, is growing, however the use for sea based transportation need to be explored. Biofuels  for ship will be advantageous. In recent UK pilot project where Buses are run on B100 Argent Energy (UK) Limited is working together with Stagecoach to supply biodiesel made by recycling and processing animal fat and used cooking oil. Marine engines with their inherent lower speed and more tolerant to burning alternative fuels than smaller, higher speed engines tolerance will allow them to run on lower grade and cheaper biofuels.
  • Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines (RCCL) unveiled a palm oil-based biodiesel since 2005.Optimistic outcome of the trial made RCCL confident enough to sign a contract in August 2007 for delivery of a minimum 15 million gallons and for the four years after, a minimum of 18 millions gallons of biodiesel for its cruise ships fleet. The contract marked the single largest long-term biodiesel sales contract in the United States.
  • In early 2007, United States Coast Guard indicated that their fleet will augment increase use of biofuels by 15% over the next four years.
  • In the marine industry, beside energy substitute advantage, biolubricants and biodegradable oil  are particularly advantageous from an environmental and pollution perspective. Bio lubrication also offer higher viscosity, flash point and better technical properties such as increased sealing and lower machine operating temperature advantageous use in ship operation.

Time has gone when maritime industry could afford nitty gritty in adopting technology, other industry are already on a fast track preparing themselves technically for evitable changes driven by environmental problem, Global energy demands and political debate add further pressures to find alternative energy especially bio energy  because of hybridization of old and new system advantage it offer. The implication is that shipping could be caught ill prepared for any rapid change in demand or supply of biofuel. Thus this technology is in the early stages of development but the shipping industry need top be prepared for the impacts of its breakthrough because Shipping will eventually required be at the centre of this supply and demand logistics chain again. Table 3 shows the projection for the main present players.

Table3  – projection


Growth (1990-1994)

Projection (2020)

United states






4.0 Sources of biomass

North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC) region. Supply has classified biofuel into the following four type’s vizs: agricultural residues, energy crops, forestry residues, and urban wood waste/mill residues. A brief description of each type of biomass is provided below:

  • Agricultural residues from the remaining stalks and biomass material left on the ground can be collected and used for energy generation purposes this include residues of wheat straw and corn stover.
  • Energy crops are produced solely or primarily for use as feedstocks in energy generation processes. Energy crops includes hybrid poplar, and switchgrass, grown on idled, or in pasture, and in the Conservation Reserve Program (CRP).
  • Forestry residues are composed of logging residues, rough rotten salvageable dead wood, and excess small pole trees.
  • Urban wood waste/mill residues are waste woods from manufacturing operations that would otherwise be landfilled. The urban wood waste/mill residue category includes primary mill residues and urban wood such as pallets, construction waste, and demolition debris, which are not otherwise used.

The most important agricultural commodity crops being planted in the United States are listed in Table 4. Corn, wheat, and soybeans represent about 70 percent of total cropland harvested.

Table 6 shows representative characteristics for different subcategories of urban wood waste and mill residues.

5.0 Risk and Uncertainties

Although a significant amount of effort has gone into estimating the available quantities of biomass supply, the following risk and uncertainties that need to be incorporated into design and decision work on biodiesel use are:

  • Risk to land use – Our planet only have 295 land, for example Brazil has some 200 million acres of farmland available, more than the 46 million acres of land,  required to grow the sugarcane needed to satisfy the projected 2022
  • Evolving competing uses of biomass materials, the large market consumption, pricing and growing need.
  • In agricultural waste, the impact of biomass removal on soil quality pose treat to agricultural residues that need to be left on the soil to maintain soil quality could result in significant losses of biomass for electric power generation purposes.
  • Impact of changes in forest fire prevention policies on biomass availability could cause vegetation in forests to minimize the potential for forest fires could significantly increase the quantity of forestry residues available.
  • Potential attempt to recycle more of the municipal solid waste stream might translate into less available biomass for electricity generation.
  • Impact on the food production industry as witness in recent food scarcity crisis

5.1 Regulatory impact


The EU has stated that by 2020 a target of 20% of community wide energy will be renewable. Further to this, all member states are to achieve a mandatory 10% minimum target for the share of biofuels in transport petrol and diesel consumption by 2020.. The legislation provides a phase-in for biofuel blends, including availability of high percentage biofuel blends at filling stations.  The United States Congress passed the Renewable Fuels Standards (RFS) in February 2008, which will require 35 billion gallons of renewable and alternative fuels in 2022. In parallel to this, work is continuing to reduce emissions further in vehicles. Political drivers in Asia vary according to region. In Southeast Asia, the centre of world production for palm oil, coconut oil, and other tropical oils, political support for farming is the key driver.

The issue affecting shipping is whether to refine and use biodiesel locally, or export the unrefined oil for product production elsewhere. In the short term the economics have favored the exports of unrefined oil – which is good news for us. Over the next ten years, with the cost of oil rising, and strict emission reductions in place, the need for increased biofuel production is likely to increase. as well as creating a net positive balance fuel. According to the IEA, world biofuels demand for transport could increase to about 3% of overall world oil demand in 2015 and double by 2030 over the 2008 figure. This does not sound so significant but as we show later it has a significant impact on the specialist fleet capacity demand. As we said before, predicting the trade pattern of biofuels adds a layer of complexity to the overall  nergy supply picture and our oil distribution system.

We also believe that this forecast will be the minimum seen as the political pressures will cause the level to rise beyond 3%. To put the scale in context, the current oil tanker fleet of vessels 10,000 dwt or larger comprises of some 4,600 vessels amounting to 386 million dwt. These include about 2,560 Handysize tankers. Additionally, there are some 4,400 more small tankers from 1,000 to 10,000 dwt accounting for 16 million dwt. Our projections show a significant role for seaborne transport, even using conservative bases with high proportions of locally supplied biofuels. This is a significant fleet segment that poses technical and regulatory challenges. As we have discussed, the requirements cannot be fully defined because many market factors remain uncertain, but ship owners who are building new vessels or operating existing vessels should consider this future trade through flexible design options that we will introduce later.

5.3  Potential Impacts to Shipping


The key political drivers for biofuels are environmental concerns, energy security and agricultural policy. The tonne mile demand for future tankers will be greatly affected by national, regional or global policy and political decision making in these areas. There is a greater flexibility in the sourcing of biofuels than there is in hydrocarbon energy sources and this may be attractive to particular governments. Once the regulatory framework is clear, economics will determine how the regulations will best be met and seaborne trade will be at the centre of the outcome. In many parts of the world, environmental concerns are the leading political driver for biofuels. Reflecting these concerns, the global Kyoto Protocol, was negotiated in 1997, and this further provides a driver for the use of biofuels.

5.4  Shipping Routes and Economics Impacts


The above trend analysis discussed indicate potential capacity requirement from shipping, so far  North America, Europe and South East  Asia are the key importing regions where this growth is concentrated. This includes the Latin American counties of Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, and Paraguay and Southeast Asia’s Indonesia and Malaysia will remain key suppliers for the palm oil, Philippines and Papua New Guinea have potentials for vegetable oil and agricultural while Thailand has potential for sugarcane. This trade potential will determine future trade route from Malacca Straits to Europe, ballast to Argentina, to load soybean oil to China, and then make a short ballast voyage to the Malacca Straits, where the pattern begins again, a typical complicated fronthaul / backhaul combinations that can initiate, economies of scale need top reduce freight costs and subsequent push for bigger ship production and short sea services like recent experience of today’s tankers.  According to plateau case study the following regional impact can be deduced for shipping.



North America


33 million tons


ethanol and biodiesel.: 50:50

30 million tons


ethanol and biodiesel.: 50:50

18 million tons

North America demand – policy work support biofuel use in the us and 32 Handysize equivalent tankers will be needed to meet US demand in 2015. with technological breakthrough there will be need for 125 vessel 2030.

European demand – Due to environmental requirement and energy security believed to be politically acceptable in the EU but economics may drive a different outcome.80 Handysizes with some due to the growth in trade and longer voyage distance.  With technological breakthrough for 2nd and 3rd generation biofuel growth will need growing to 145 in 2030 Aframax vessels if the technical issues can be overcome.

Asia demand  – In plateau case  50 Handysize equivalents are required in 2015 and 2030 with forecast vessel sizes being Handysizes with some Panamax vessels 162 vessels total in the three regions.

By adding up all the regions, with biofuels as only 3% of world transport demand, we are looking at a fleet of about 400 Handysize vessels to accommodate the demand and supply drivers by 2030 and 162 by 2015. The total vessel forecast for 2030 could means 2,560 vessels of 81 million deadweight tons.

As regions identify these growth markets and recognize the economies of $/tonne scale that can be achieved, as shown here, with bigger tonnage, we are seeing natural investment occurring. New port developments in concerned trade rout will be required to accommodate large Panamax vessel and parcel size for palm oil exports. on the long haul routes.

5.5  Biomass  Ship Technologies Impacts


A variety of methods could turn an age-old natural resource into a new and efficient means of generating electricity. biomass in large amounts is available in many areas, and is being considered as a fuel source for future generation of electricity. Biomass is by its nature both bulky and widely distributed and electricity from conventional, centralized power plants requires an extensive distribution network. Traditionally power is generated through centralized, conventional power plant, where biomass is transported to the central plant, typically a steam or gas turbine power plant, and the electricity is then distributed through the grid to the end users. Costs include fuel and transportation, power plant construction, maintenance, and operation, and distribution of the electric power, including losses in transmission.

Electrical efficiency



thermal efficiency -40 %

$2,000 per kilowat


45 %

$1,500 per kilowatt,

However, micro-biomass power generators located at the site of end-use seem to offer a path for new solution for energy. Recent development in towards use of micro biomass will equally offer best practice adaptation for marine power. Biomass is used at or near the site of end-use, with heat from external combustion converted directly to electricity by a biomass fired free-piston genset . Costs include fuel and acquisition and maintenance of the genset and burner. Since the electricity is used on site, both transmission losses and distribution costs are minimal. Thus, in areas without existing infrastructure to transmit power, there are no additional costs. In this case it is also possible to cogenerate using the rejected heat for space or hot water heating, or absorption cooling. Previously, option two has not been feasible, since there have been no small (less than ~50 kW) devices for directly and efficiently converting biomass energy to electricity. Micro-biomass power generation is a more cost-effective means of providing power than central biomass power generation. In particular, areas where there is a need for both power and heat – domestic hot water and space heat and absorption chilling – are attractive for cogeneration configurations of this machine. Biomass can be generated using single or ganged free-piston Stirling engines gensets. These micro-biomass generators offer a number of advantages over centralized biomass fueled power plants. They can be placed at the end-user location taking advantage of local fuel prices and do not require a distribution grid. They can directly provide electrical output with integral linear alternators, or where power requirements are larger they can be ganged and drive a conventional rotary turbine. They are hermetically sealed and offer long lives through their non-contact operation.

Biomass for electricity generation is treated in four ways in NEMS: (1) new dedicated biomass or biomass gasification, (2) existing and new plants that co-fire biomass with coal, (3) existing plants that combust biomass directly in an open-loop process,18 and (4) biomass use in industrial cogeneration applications. Existing biomass plants are accounted for using information such as on-line years, efficiencies, heat rates, and retirement dates, obtained through EIA surveys of the electricity generation sector.

Emissions offsets and waste reduction could help enhance the appeal of biomass to utilities  An important consideration for the future use of biomass-fired power plants is the treatment of biomass flue gases. Biomass-combustion flue gases have high moisture content. When the flue gas is cooled to a temperature below the dew point, water vapor starts to condense. By using flue-gas condensation, sensible and latent heat can be recovered for district heating or other heat-consuming processes; this increases the heat generation from a cogeneration plant by more than 30 percent.  Flue-gas condensation not only recovers heat but also captures dust and hazardous pollutants from flue gases at the same time. Most dioxins, chlorine, mercury, and dust are removed, and sulfur oxides are separated out to some extent. Another feature of flue gas condensation is water recovery, which helps solve the problem of water consumption in evaporative gas turbines.

Biomass open door for another way rather than competing with fossil fuel plants a substantial opportunity exists to generate micro-biomass electric power, at power levels from fractions of a kilowatts through to tens or hundreds of kilowatts, at the point of en d use. At these power levels neither small internal combustion engines, which cannot use biomass directly, nor reciprocating steam engines, with low efficiency and limited life, can offer the end user economic electric power. Free-piston Stirling micro biomass engine engines are an economic alternative. Stirling offers the following advantages over significantly larger systems:

  • Stirling machines have reasonable overall efficiencies at moderate heater head temperatures (~600ƒC)
  • cogeneration is simple
  • large amounts of capital do not have to be raised to build a single evaluation plant with its associated technical and economic risks
  • A large fraction of the value of the engine alternator can be reused at the end of its life
  • Stirling systems can be ganged with multiple units operating in parallel.

United States: 1996, P1-R96-STAB-00-NTH (Washington, DC, November 1996). l.

How serious is Diabetes?

Very! The early symptoms of untreated diabetes mellitus are related to the elevated blood glucose levels. Excess glucose in the blood ultimately results in high levels of glucose being present in the urine (glucosuria). This increases the urine output, which leads to dehydration and increased thirst. Other symptoms include extreme tiredness, weight loss, blurred vision, itchy skin and repeated minor infections such as thrush and boils.

Another form of diabetes, known as gestational diabetes, occurs in some women during pregnancy. It is a temporary condition caused by pregnancy and usually occurs in the later stages, once the baby has formed but is still growing.

Although there is currently no cure for diabetes mellitus, it can be controlled successfully with an active treatment plan. The potential benefit of pancreas transplants and islet cell transplants in type 1 patients is being investigated.

What are the symptoms of diabetes?

Type I diabetes develops very quickly. The classic signs of diabetes include:

1. Frequent urination, because the body is trying to get rid of the excess sugar in the blood
2. Intense thirst, because the body needs to replace the fluid lost through the urine
3. Increased hunger, because the cells need nutrients
4. Weight loss, because without insulin, the body begins to starve. The onset of Type 2 diabetes is often very gradual and may develop without any symptoms at all. Sadly, the diagnosis most often is made only after a complication of the disease happens


Acupuncture is a procedure in that a practitioner inserts needles into designated points on the skin. Some Western scientists believe that acupuncture triggers the release of the body’s natural painkillers. Acupuncture has been shown to offer relief from chronic pain. Acupuncture is sometimes used by people with neuropathy, the painful nerve damage of diabetes.

Your weight affects your health in many ways. Being overweight can keep your body from making and using insulin properly. It can also cause high blood pressure. The DPP showed that losing even a few pounds can help reduce your risk of developing type 2 diabetes because it helps your body use insulin more effectively. In the DPP, people who lost between 5 and 7 percent of their body weight significantly reduced their risk of type 2 diabetes.

Perhaps no single physical symptom quite exceeds the discomfort and inconvenience of morning sickness, and no other symptom can affect your pregnancy and diet so greatly. When you feel sick, you don’t want to eat—but of course you have to, to nourish your body as well as provide nutrients for your baby. So how can you eat well during pregnancy if you are dealing with morning sickness? In this article, we discuss what causes morning sickness and possible changes you can make to your diet to ease your nausea.

What Causes Morning Sickness?

Morning sickness is caused by the hormonal adjustments your body is undertaking as you accustom yourself to being pregnant. For many women, morning sickness is the first sign of pregnancy. Other lucky moms may never experience a bout of nausea for the next nine months. For some expectant mothers, morning sickness ends in about the fourth month of pregnancy. For others, morning sickness stretches on well into the third trimester.

Because morning sickness varies so greatly from pregnant woman to pregnant woman, and because its exact cause is not really understood, it can be difficult to treat. Many over the counter remedies for nausea are off-limits to pregnant women, so finding a way to ease symptoms can be daunting. However, there are dietary changes that can be made to make morning sickness less of a debilitating issue.

Dietary Solutions to Ease Nausea

If you have morning sickness, you may feel like eating only refined carbohydrates, such as crackers and toast. However, don’t go overboard with these foods, which don’t really address the underlying cause of the nausea and can contribute to weight gain. Instead, try to eat protein, as difficult as it may be. If the thought of eating meat turns your stomach, consider alternative sources of protein like raw organic nuts, raw organic nut butters, whole organic eggs, and chicken broth.

You can also ease your queasiness with ginger. But don’t purchase ginger ale, which is loaded with sugar or artificial sweeteners. Instead, make your own ginger tea by boiling slices of ginger root in filtered water. Sweeten with stevia and sip throughout the morning. You can also add ginger to your homemade chicken broth to help ease your nausea while still getting the protein you need.

The important thing is to stay nourished and hydrated. Hunger can cause you to feel faint and dehydration can cause an entire range of health issues for both you and the baby. So even when you don’t feel like eating or drinking anything, go ahead and try to use these dietary suggestions to stay on track.

Drinking water is also crucial during morning sickness. You need to replenish your lost fluids, and drinking water can help you stay on track. At a minimum, you should be drinking half your body weight in water every day. Add more if you are vomiting, or if you drink caffeinated beverages.

What If It Doesn’t Get Better?

If your nausea is getting to the point that you cannot function, then it’s time to speak to your OB/GYN about prescription medications that can help bring the symptoms back under control. Many women have found that with prescription medications and the dietary changes outlined above, they can function quite easily throughout their first trimester.

If you are vomiting frequently, be on the lookout for the signs of dehydration. These symptoms include dark, scanty urine, thirst, loss of appetite, dry mouth, fatigue, weakness, and loss of skin elasticity. These symptoms are important to monitor not only because of the problems that dehydration causes for the mother, but for the baby as well. If you feel you may be dehydrated, call your OB/GYN or head to the nearest emergency room immediately for treatment.

Many unemployed job seekers today spend months trying to identify and interest prospective employers by cold calling, fine tuning resumes and utilizing job sites and hiring agencies. Once the hard fought effort to obtain an interview is won, job seekers must not sabotage their chances through inappropriate or unprofessional behavior. Many of the unemployed lose out on positions they are qualified for because of their lack of interview etiquette.

What does this interview etiquette mean exactly? First of all, always dress appropriately. Do not show up for an interview in jeans, shorts, leggings, t-shirts, torn or wrinkled clothing. Business casual is usually the safe rule of thumb. Cologne is not a good idea as there are some that are allergic to the scent. Proper bathing and hygiene, including clean fingernails, should be standard. You want to show the hiring manager that you have enough respect for the position and company to present yourself appropriately. First impressions do matter.

Always be prepared by having your resume and pen on hand. Know the name of the hiring manager you are meeting and some details of the company you wish to work for. This will allow you to ask questions at the end of the interview. Hiring managers want to know that you are in fact interested enough by doing your homework on the company.

During the interview, try to appear relaxed with a pleasant expression. It is natural to feel nervous but keep eye contact and try not to tap or fidget. This can be pretty distracting for a hiring manager and you will want to be remembered for your skills and expertise not nervous mannerisms.

It is NEVER appropriate to swear or lie during an interview. Candidates have a tendency to embellish as they want to look good, but often times this will backfire. Hiring managers are pretty adept at ferreting out details and if you are not truthful, this will become apparent and lose you the opportunity to be hired. Swearing is plain unprofessional and inexcusable.

Candidates can often have a tendency to bad mouth previous employers. It is understood that people leave jobs for a lot of reasons, many unpleasant. Bad mouthing a previous employer or coworker shows a lack of professionalism and speaks to character and maturity. Negative employment situations can be explained without the finger pointing or blame.

There is plenty of competition for the open jobs that are available right now. Following the above interview etiquette tips may not guarantee you will get hired, but ignoring them will certainly insure that you do not. Using proper behavior skills and having the right qualifications are the best mix for interviewing success.

What will you do with your materialism when you pass?

It is a reality that our world is driven by materialism, which unfortunately is a very real cause of distention between people. It is my belief that it has also caused problems between families nations and countries. How much longer do we need to continue on this path of destruction. Rather than being happy for an individual achieving something, whether It be wealth or success. Most individuals create a deep hatred and distain for that person. It is this negative emotion that multiplies like a cancer through the body and throughout the world. I was witness to the jealousy between several individuals because of the material issues surrounding them. Where is the joy in seeing someone happy? Let’s face facts, you cannot take the wealth with you or your material benefits from the earth plane. Money is a benefit that is steeped in evil, yet it is not the money that causes it, but the greed of the individual.

If your soul has to fly, to be free and untainted by the bonds of materialism in this plane, it should disregard the heavy chains of materiality and instead seek a balance between what is needed, desired and provided. When you eventually pass to the other side of life, there will be no need to have these trinkets around you. They will not pay for your wrong doings and cannot weigh the balance of your karmic debt. You will not enter into nirvana because you have an appropriate fee. Your wealth is truly measured by your inner being and your soul.

There are those who will give to charity, not out of love for their fellow being, but out of a sense of duty, because it makes them look better in the eyes of their own materially driven counterparts. Your soul cannot lie and will only tell the truth. Can you give your last penny out of your pocket to someone in need, or does it make you feel good to give the a few dollars out of your bulging wallet. Prayer is also a good currency but should of course be given with love. I would rather see the smile on someone who truly feels it when you help them. There are far more commodities in life than money and at the end of the day, it is only energy. However, like anything in life, there is good energy and bad energy. It is your choice how you will use this energy. We are governed by energy only because we allow it, yet It is one cancer where the cure seems so elusive, though it is there.

Another unfortunate circumstance of our materially driven lives is that a great percentage of the human race live constantly through their eyes. We need to look with the eyes of spirit and not the eyes of a merchant. If we live a heart centered life, and allow ourselves to consider our spiritual benefits, surely we would be far richer. I fully understand that one has to live and to pay their way in life. The truth is that even though the universe has given every one the right to be abundant and ensured their is enough to go around – not a sense of lack. There are those that, by their greed, cause suffering to others. Before long, things are out of control and everyone begins to suffer. Before long, I know that mother nature will balance what is out of balance and she can be a loving allie or a fearsome enemy. Amassing wealth can only darken the soul if it causes suffering, but amassing wealth and benefitting others can of course change the course from destruction to living. Perhaps it is time to become more mindful of the cancer that is materialism.

Written by Jock Brocas

child behind desk.PNGBusiness owners are always seeking ways to cut expenses.  On of the biggest mistakes business owners and managers make when seeking a bookkeeper to keep track of their business finances, is hiring a bookkeeper who has little or no experience because they are able to pay them $10 – $12 per hour.  But in the long run, they find themselves spending more to correct the mistakes created by the inexperienced bookkeeper.  Inexperienced bookkeepers do not understand the concept of financial management when operating a business and keeping accurate, up-to-date accounting records is essential to operating a productive business. Even a minor mistake can lead to severe confusions if not properly handle.

Would you hire a financial consultant for your business that has no business experience? Would you hire a mechanic to work on your car who has never fixed cars?  Would you put your life in the hand of a doctor who has never practiced? If you answer yes to any of these questions, you’re a fool!

The difference in hiring just anyone and hiring a professional service provider is so they can independently provide you with a service to give you a peace of mind and you can focus on other things.

When operating a business you have to consider the repercussions of hiring a bookkeeper who has little or no experience.  If you do decide to hire a college student or your family member to manage you business finances, spend the extra money it will cost to have them trained and educated so they are able to become an asset to your business, not a liability. Proper management of business finances saves your company money. It allows you a better view of your business finances to make better business decisions within your company.

We’ve heard many stories from business owners and manager who took the initiative and hired an inexperienced bookkeeper only to find that it will cost them more money to correct the problems and mistakes.  We’ve all heard the saying “You get what you pay for”.

Bookkeeping firms costs more money, but they are usually well-trained and competent enough to handle the different kinds of tasks to be completed in the financial accounting area. These bookkeepers are well-informed about all the processes that bring about more profits to businesses and know the detailed methods of effective bookkeeping. So taking help from the experts themselves can prove to be beneficial to your business.

Theresa Todman, CEO of Bookkeeping & More Services, LLC. For more information about how to run your business efficiently visit www.bookkeepingnmore.com