Living organisms are continuously undergoing chemical reactions which gives rise to energy changes in their bodies. All these reactions and changes are termed metabolism. Basically, metabolism consists of two processes, the synthesis or building up of complex body substances from simpler constituents and energy, and the decomposition nor breaking down of these complex substances and energy. The first process is known as anabolism and the second as catabolism.

One of the main characteristics of living organisms is the ability to feed. This is referred to as nutrition. Nutrition is therefore, the process of acquiring energy and materials for cell metabolism, including maintenance and repair of cells and growth. In living organisms, nutrition is a complex series of both anabolic and catabolic processes by means of which food materials taken into the body are converted to complex body substances (mainly for growth) and energy (for work). In animals, the food materials taken in are usually in the form of complex, insoluble compounds. These are broken down to simpler compounds, which can be absorbed into the cells. In plants, complex food materials are first synthesized by the plant cells and then distributed to all parts of the plant body. Here, they are converted to simpler, soluble forms, which can be absorbed into the protoplasm of each cell. The raw materials necessary for the synthesis of these complex food materials are obtained from air and soil in the plant’s environment.

All living organisms that cannot provide their own energy supply by either photosynthesis or chemosynthesis are known as hetero strophes or hetero strophic organisms. Hetero strophic means feeding on others’. All animals are hetero strophes. Other organisms such as many types of bacteria, a few flowering plants and all fungi use this method of nutrition. The way in which hetero strophes obtain their food varies considerably. However the way in which the food is processed into usable form within the body is very similar in most of them. But all green plants possess the ability to manufacture carbohydrates from certain raw materials obtained from the air and soil. This ability is important not only to the plants themselves but also to animals, including man, which depend directly or indirectly on plants for food.

Photosynthesis is the process whereby plants manufacture their foods through the use of energy from the sun and available raw materials. It is the manufacture of carbohydrates in plants. It takes place in the chlorophylls (i.e. green) cells of leaves and stems only. These green cells contain chloroplasts, which are essential for the synthesis of food. All the raw materials required for photosynthesis, namely, water and mineral salts from the soil, and carbon dioxide from the atmosphere have, therefore, to be transported to the chlorophylls cells, which are most abundant in leaves.

The tiny pores, or stomata, which usually occur greater numbers on the lower surfaces of most leaves, allow gases from the atmosphere to pass into the tissues within. A stoma is an oval-shaped epidermal cells known as guard cells. Each stoma is actually the aperture of a sub-stomata air chamber. This is a large intercellular air space, which lies adjacent to the stoma. It is continuous with other intercellular air spaces found inside the leaf. The size of each stomata pore depends on the curvature of the guard cells flanking it. When the guard cells are full of water they become swollen, or turgid, and consequently the pore opens. However, when the water level is low they become soft, or flaccid, and collapse, as the result, which the pores close. When the stoma is open air enters the sub-stomata chamber and diffuses throughout the intercellular air dissolves in the water, which surrounds the cells. This solution of carbon dioxide then diffuses into the cells of the leaf, particularly the palisade cells. Here, it is used by the chloroplasts for photosynthesis.

Water carrying dissolved mineral salts such as the phosphates, chlorides and bicarbonate of sodium, potassium, calcium iron and magnesium, is absorbed from the soil by the roots. This soil water enters the roots hairs by a process called osmosis the movement of water molecule from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration through a semi-permeable membrane. It is then conducted upwards from the roots, through the stem to the leaves by the xylem tissue. It is transported to all the cells, via the vein and their branches.

The chloroplasts contain the green pigment, (chlorophyll) which gives the plants it color and capable of absorbing light energy from sunlight. This energy is used for one of the first essential steps in photosynthesis; namely, the splitting of the water molecule into oxygen and hydrogen. This oxygen is liberated into the atmosphere. The hydrogen components are used too reduces carbon dioxide, in a series of enzymes and energy consuming reactions, to form complex organic compounds like sugars and starches.

During photosynthesis high energy-continuing compounds like carbohydrates are synthesized from low energy-containing compounds like carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight and chlorophyll. As solar energy is necessary for photosynthesis, the process cannot occur at night due to the absence of sunlight. The final products of photosynthesis are carbohydrates and oxygen. The former is distributed to all parts of the plant. The latter is given off as a gas through the stomata back to the atmosphere in exchange for the carbon dioxide that was taken in. the occurrence of photosynthesis in green leaves may be demonstrated by experiments showing the absorption of carbon dioxide, water and energy by the leaves, and the production of oxygen and carbohydrates. Simple experiments can be set up to demonstrate the giving off of oxygen by green plants, the formation of carbohydrates (namely, starch) in leaves and the requirements of carbon dioxide, sunlight and chlorophyll for the formation of starch in green leaves.

Experiments in physiology involve the placing of biological materials like plants and animals or parts of plants and animals under unusual conditions, e.g. jars, cages or boxes. If an experiments is set up to show the effects produced by the absence of carbon dioxide during the photosynthetic process, then the result obtained from such an experiment can be argued as being partially due to the placing of the biological material under unnatural experimental conditions it is, therefore, necessary to set up two almost identical experiments; one is placed under normal conditions (the control experiment) where all the factors necessary for photosynthesis are present while the other (the test experiment) is placed under a condition where a single factor is eliminated or varied while all the other factors are present. This enables the experimenter to be sure that the result shown by his test experiment is due to the eliminated or varied factor and not to the experimented set-up. Thus, the control experiment serves as a guide to ensure that the conclusion obtained by the test experiment is not a fallacy.

After certain proper experiments observation show clearly that oxygen is released only when photosynthesis occurs, i.e. during the day. No starch can be formed if sunlight is absent although the other entire essential factors such as water, carbon dioxide and chlorophyll may be present.

Photosynthesis the basic constituent of nutrition the unit of healthy living has played and is playing an essential role to living organisms. The complex cellular structures of plants are built up from the primary product of photosynthesis, namely, a simple carbohydrate like glucose. At this stage, it must be realize that, though much emphasis has been placed on photosynthesis, the process of protein synthesis is just as important as the former. During protein synthesis, nitrogenous compounds absorbed by plants and in certain cases, phosphorus and others element, combine with glucose to form the various plant proteins.

Besides contributing to the synthesis of plants proteins, glucose is important also because it can be transformed into fats and oils after a series of chemical reactions. It is also the primary product from which other organic compounds are formed.

The importance of photosynthesis in all food cycles cannot be overemphasized. Animals are unable to make use of the sun’s energy to synthesize energy-rich compounds from simples easily-available substances like water and carbon dioxide found in the atmosphere around us, rather the ultraviolet rays from the sun causes some to living body; the melanin and keratin it affects the color and strength of animals skin, and some internal damages. From the rays, Therefore, it is fortunate that plants have the ability to use the energy provided by sunlight to synthesize and store energy-rich compounds upon which ultimately all forms of animal life are dependent.

For his survival, man eats not only plant products like fruits, vegetables and cereals, but also animals like cattle and fish. Cattle and other herbivorous animals depend entirely on plant life for their existence. While certain fish are herbivorous, others have a mixed diet and a large number are entirely carnivorous. Carnivorous animals depend indirectly on plants for a living. Their immediate diet consist of smaller animals which themselves must feed, if not entirely, then partly, on plants. Photosynthesis is the first step in all food cycles.

During the process of photosynthesis, carbon dioxide is removed from the atmosphere and oxygen is added to it. If this purification process did not exist in nature, soon the atmosphere would become saturated with the carbon dioxide given out during the respiration of animals and plants and during decomposition of organic matter so that all life would gradually come to a stop. Without photosynthesis, there will be no nutrition. And if there is no nutrition, living thing will not exist. And if there’s no living things in the earth the earth will still be without form and entirely void. There will be no for living things to do work if photosynthesis does not court. I wonder what will be the fate of living things today or sometime, when photosynthesis comes to a stop.

Whether you have chestnuts roasting on an open fire, or if you go around the corner to get a bag at the grocery store, it might be time to start eating more nuts!

Nuts have been a part of the human diet since the beginning of our history. According to the Nutcracker Museum site,

Recently there was an archeological dig in Israel where researchers found evidence showing that nuts formed a major part of man’s diet 780,000 years ago.  Seven varieties of nuts along with stone tools to crack open the nuts were found buried deep in a bog. The nuts were wild almond, prickly water lily, water chestnut and 2 varieties of both acorns and pistachios.

Fast forward hundreds of thousands of years later, as hunting and gathering has “gone out of style”, and humans eat much fewer nuts than they used to. With the rise of processed foods, and dozens of snack options with minimum work involved, chips and dip just seem more appetizing.

However, there are plenty of reasons you should be eating more nuts. Not only will they get you in the holiday mood, they will also offer tons of health benefits, and maybe even give you a jump start on your New Year’s resolutions.

A photo posted by Raquel da Silva (@raquelbelezadasilva) on

1. Nuts are Packed with Nutritional Value

When it comes to nuts, you are really getting a bang for your buck. None of this “empty calories” stuff. Nuts are a great source of unsaturated fatty acids, fiber, vitamins (like vitamin E), minerals (like iron). Together, all of these nutrients promote healthy organ function, healthy skin, and help fight off illness so you can really enjoy the holidays.

2. Nuts Help to Prevent Heart Disease and Stroke

Nuts are chock full of monounsaturated fat, including omega-3 fatty acids, which lower total cholesterol with a particularly powerful effect on “bad” LDL cholesterol. Nuts also have phytosterols, which are plant compounds that also lower cholesterol and have potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on the body. These help to break down buildup on your artery walls, which can block healthy blood circulation.

3. Nuts Help Prevent Cancer

The antioxidants in nuts, particularly walnuts, called polyphenols, are powerful cancer fighters. Antoxidants help to fight off free radicals, which can cause cell damage – one of the reasons cancer can arise.

The types of cancer nuts may help prevent include: breast cancer, colorectal cancer, pancreatic cancer, and ovarian cancer.

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4. Nuts Boost Brain Health

Remember those omega-3 fatty acids mentioned before? Well, in addition to promoting circulation, they also promote brain health. Nuts are also full of antioxidants which help to slow down or prevent cognitive decline that happens with age, and could even reduce the risk of brain-related diseases, like Alzheimer’s.

5. Nuts Help Reduce Overall Mortality

A recent study found that eating a handful of nuts everyday can go way beyond the benefits described above. They may help reduce overall mortality rates. After analyzing a range of existing studies, researchers from the Imperial College London and the Norwegian University of Science determined that as little as 20 grams of nuts a day (about a handful) can significantly reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, cancer, respiratory disease, diabetes, and infectious diseases!

Some people avoid nuts because they are pretty high in calories. However, in a time of year where we are surrounded loads of high-sugar foods without much nutritional benefit, why not get out the nutcracker and crack open some nuts, instead?


Christmas Walnut Salad

Thinking about what sides you should offer along with the Christmas turkey? I recommend this nutty, fruity salad that will help you get in your daily recommendation of nuts, while packing in a range of other nutrients.


1 head romaine lettuce

3 cups baby spinach

1 can mandarin orange slices (optional)

½ cup dried cranberry

¾ cup crushed walnuts

½ cup raspberry vinaigrette

Mix all of the salad ingredients together and drizzle with raspberry vinaigrette.

Tip: You can also make your own vinaigrette by mixing together ½ cup apple cider vinegar, 4 tbsp olive oil, 1 tbs, Dijon mustard, 2 cloves garlic, and ¼ cup rasperries in a food processor.


A photo posted by s t e p h r o d (@sherunsonfitspiration) on

Happy Holidays!


Can a handful of nuts a day keep cancer away?

Jamaicans love their puddings. Some Jamaican puddings such as bread and butter pudding were inspired by a colonial past, while others were a result of the availability of ingredients. Puddings in Jamaica are not the same as the gelatin-based puddings as eaten in other countries. Jamaican puddings are much heartier like a bread pudding consistency and a knife is best in slicing the pudding. Jamaica has different types of puddings and one of the most popular puddings in Jamaica is the sweet potato pudding. Sweet potato in Jamaica is often a different variety than the sweet potato (or yam) used in US dishes. Additionally, the term yam sometimes used to refer to sweet potato in the US, is a starchy staple produce in Jamaica and is available in different varieties such as yellow yam and soft yam. In some Jamaican households, cooks add grated yellow yam to the pudding mixture for added texture as well as for a binding agent.

Traditionally, Jamaican home cooks grated sweet potato to make their puddings. Additionally, coconut milk, which was a main ingredient in the pudding, also meant grating the dried coconut and extracting the milk, through a series of adding water and squeezing out the resulting coconut milk. Many Jamaicans remember the reference to sweet potato pudding as ‘hell a top, hell a bottom, hallelujah inna di middle.’ By tradition, the pudding was baked over a coal stove by placing a type of dutch oven (know as dutchie in Jamaica) with a flat cover over a grill on the coal filled stove. The top of the cover of the dutch pot was normally filled with hot coals, hence the pudding baked from both top and bottom simultaneously. However, with the advent of ovens, food processors, blenders and canned coconut milk, home cooks now have a much easier job in making their puddings.

In Jamaica, sweet potato pudding is on many restaurant dessert menus or is easily available at local bakeries at eateries. Overseas, it might not be as easy to buy a slice of sweet potato pudding, but it is quite easy to follow a recipe and make a classic Jamaican pudding. Many cities in the US, UK and Canada have Jamaican or West Indian grocery stores that stock the ingredients needed to make a traditional Jamaican pudding. So, if you feel the hankering to try a taste of Jamaica, go out, get the ingredients, and begin baking.

Jamaican Sweet Potato Pudding

1 1/2 pounds grated sweet potato

½ lb grated yellow yam (omit yam if not available and use ½ lb more sweet potato)

1 1/4 cup brown sugar (or use equal amount of Splenda/Stevia)

1/2 cup all purpose flour

1/4 cup cornmeal (you can omit the cornmeal and add 1/4 cup more flour)

4 cups canned coconut milk (reconstitute coconut milk powder if needed)

2 cup raisins

2 teaspoons grated nutmeg

2 teaspoon mixed spice

3 teaspoons vanilla

1 teaspoon salt (adjust as needed)

1 tablespoon butter

2 tablespoon brandy or white rum (optional)


  1. Peel, wash and chop potato into small cubes and using blender, blend on “grate” option until potato is almost smooth. Alternatively, you can grate the potato
  2. To get the coconut milk, you can grate the coconut, add water, and squeeze out the coconut milk that is formed. Alternatively, you can use canned or reconstituted coconut milk
  3. Then once the ground work is done, mix all the dry ingredients, and then add coconut milk, vanilla, liquor and grated potato and mix well
  4. Mix in raisins and pour into greased pan and dot with bits of the butter
  5. Bake at 375 degrees F for about an hour until set and mixture lifts starts to shrink away from the side of the pan.
  6. Cut into slices and enjoy

Sorting wheatgrass truths from fiction can be a difficult process. From the initial research on the useful effects of wheatgrass on ailing chickens in the 1920s, claims for wheatgrass benefits for individuals have burgeoned. Dissenters, too, have multiplied as quickly as wheatgrass grows. In 2006, Brian Dunning published "Speptiod # 06," which criticized many claims, focusing on the lack of scientific research into the claims. In the following years, that research has begun to be published.

So what are the wheatgrass facts? In a nutshell, there’s a grain of fact in the majority of the claims–but not many are "the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth."

Claim: wheatgrass is very high in vitamins and other nutrients.

Fact: It is just about the same as any other green vegetable. Match up two ounces of wheatgrass juice to a large serving of broccoli or spinach and you find the protein of all three to be virtually the same. Wheatgrass has 4 times the vitamin E of broccoli and 1/3 more than spinach, but broccoli has 25 times as much vitamin C as wheatgrass and spinach has 8 times. Vitamin B12 is frequently touted as one of wheatgrass’ major components. Two ounces have 0.3 micrograms–admittedly more than spinach and broccoli, neither one of which have any, but this is still only 1/2 of 1% of the minimum daily requirement for B12. Wheatgrass does have significant, just not overwhelming, amounts of numerous important vitamins, minerals, and other micro-nutrients. It is good for you.

Claim: wheatgrass is 70% chlorophyll, and chlorophyll will cure cancer, digestive conditions, and heavy metal poisoning.

Fact: There have been some small trials that have found that wheatgrass juice can be helpful in all these areas, although it doesn’t alleviate all such ailments. Some children with a hereditary anemia were able to increase the time between blood transfusions when they drank 100 ml. of wheatgrass juice each day. Women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy required fewer of the drugs which help re-build blood components if they had a similar amount of daily wheatgrass. Similar quantities seem to ameliorate the extent of ulcerative colitis. Wheatgrass, additionally, showed no counter-indications in any of these situations (if you don’t consider its flavor). So, wheatgrass is probably an aid to good health without significant side effects for the majority of people.

Claim: wheatgrass has no gluten.

Fact: Wheatgrass that has been cut after the seed has been entirely absorbed for plant growth usually has no gluten. Cut too early, it can still have some of the gluten proteins that will be concentrated in juice. Probably a tiny amount–but if you have sensitivities, you may prefer to stay clear of it.

Claim: even mold on wheatgrass can be avoided in the juice. Fact: wheat grown indoors in closely packed trays is prone to having the ungerminated seeds mold in damp environments. The obvious mold may be cleared away, and, of course, you don’t juice the unsprouted grain. However, mold reproduces by microscopic spores which might be on the grass blades. If your intolerance to mold is high, it may be good to avoid wheatgrass juice.

To preserve the good things in wheatgrass, you need to juice it properly. Either a hand-cranked juicer or an electric single- or double-auger masticating juicer like the Omega 8004 is needed. These slow-speed juicers squeeze the juice out, rather than chopping it up and pushing it out a strainer as do the high-speed juicers. The cutting both bruises the blades and produces much higher oxidation–neither one of which safeguards the nutrients. In addition, the high-speed juicers produce significant heat which further degrades the juice. Another caution: if you won’t be able to drink it promptly, keep it in the refrigerator in a container just the size of the juice so it can not further oxidize.

Miracle? No, but not a myth either. In reality, there are rewards to consuming wheatgrass juice. Its juice–properly grown, harvested, juiced, and stored–is a healthy choice, and that is a fact.

I often get emails from people who are concerned about the health implications of this diet.  Many look at some of the before and after photos on the site or take a look at Jillian Barberie in her bikini and wonder if such sudden and drastic weight loss could possibly be good for you.  I’ve even had people go so far as to ask me if Nutrisystem is a starvation diet or if is dangerous or bad for you.  I’ll go over these concerns, my responses to them, and my reasoning for my answers in the following article.

How Can Nutrisystem Possibly Be Healthy Or Good For You?: Often when I tell people that I think that Nutrisystem is perfectly safe and preferable to being dangerously over weight and all of the health conditions that this often brings with it, they don’t believe me or they think that I’m an isolated case or the exception to the rule. I don’t believe this to be true.  This is only my opinion, of course, but I believe the nutrisystem foods are low glycemic choices that can, when paired with healthy, fresh sides, help to regulate blood sugar.  I also believe that the nutrisystem choices are better than the processed or fast foods that many of us make a habit of eating.

Is Losing Weight So Rapidly On Nutrisystem Dangerous Or Bad For You?: I believe that when people ask this question, they are often concerned about rapid weight loss, not taking in enough calories, and eating too many prepackaged foods.  I’ll address these things one by one.  The rapid weight loss is often due to the fact that the low amount of carbs in the foods and the high amount of protein puts your body in a state called ketosis.  In short, your body is feeding off of stored fat because it no longer has carbs to work with.  There’s often a great deal of debate as to whether ketosis is dangerous but I believe that the consensus is that it is not.  This all bypasses your liver. 

Second, it’s my opinion that you are taking in sufficient calories for a diet.  This is not a diet that is so low in calories that it needs doctor supervision like optifast and others, which have 800 calories or less per day.  With Nutrisystem, you’re consuming around 1,200 per day which is typical of most modern diets and is not so low as as to require you to be monitored by a physician.

Third, although you are eating prepackaged foods at each meal, you’re also required to add in fresh additions.  For example, you may well be eating prepackaged cereal or a muffin for breakfast, but you’re asked to add in fresh fruit or yogurt.  You may be eating ready made pizza for lunch, but you’re asked to add in a salad or side of green beans. 

To me, Nutrisystem’s foods are nutritionally sound and are fortified with vitamins and minerals.  However, you aren’t only relying upon these.  You’ll be eating fresh foods at every meal to ensure that your body is getting every thing that it needs to do it’s job at this time – which is to lose weight and to become a healthier version of what you started with.

In my own experience, I feel much better since I lost weight.  I don’t feel sickly or light headed or dizzy or any of the concerns that folks have expressed.  I have more energy, I look better, and I look at every thing that I eat in a different and more healthful way.

Ava’s Nutrisystem Review Website features videos, tips, coupons ($100 off or weeks of food for free), comparisons to other popular diets, information on the diet’s flex program and the free counseling, and FAQs related to success on this diet. She also offers a free ebook (“Getting The Most Out Of Nutrisystem”) to help you get started. You can visit her at

There are many products that claim to increase libido and keep your penis healthy, however a healthy penis and strong libido are normally a reflection of overall lifestyle.

Many men look for miracle cures, when they should be looking at changes in lifestyle. These changes become even more critical as men pass the age of 40.

Lets look at 6 simple liefstyle changes that can help you

A healthy penis and overall health

The human body is a totally integrated organism, it is virtually impossible to have a healthy penis if there are health problems elsewhere.

Al healthy penis means, one without erectile dysfunction (ED). ED is not yet perfectly understood, and most studies are inconclusive if the causes are physiological or psychological, or both factors working together.

A healthy penis and testosterone levels

As men age, it is proved that the level of testosterone in the blood slowly decreases.

This is a main cause of libido drop and if libido can effect erections, it is then a cause of ED.

Check yourself, and see if any of the following symptoms apply to you.

Do you have sleeping problems, hair loss, become tired quickly, gaining weight, depression, become irritable easily, Sweating and flushing without physical activity?

So, if your testosterone is dropping, there is no way to have a healthy penis, and you must resort to the new generation of ED drugs (Viagra, Cialis, and so on) which may work, and may not and have unpleasant side effects.

Getting an erection with an ED drug does not mean your penis (or you are healthy) Also, if your state of health has deteriorated, you veins and arteries are not open as they were when you were young, so your ED may be caused by a slowdown / breakdown in your circulatory system.

A healthy penis 6 rules for increased libido

For both levels of testosterone and your general state of health, you can follow the easy rules below.

You will be healthier, and it will show with a healthy penis and a more virile you

Rules 1, 2 and 3 are MUSTS!

1.If you smoke, stop now. Smoking damages every part of your body, especially the circulatory system, and introduces dangerous chemicals directly into the blood.

2.You need physical exercise, and every day. It is estimated that you need at least 30 minutes of strenuous exercise daily as a minimum. To get testosterone levels up naturally, put yourself on a good weight lifting program. See your doctor first, and then ask a professional trainer to give you a special program suited to your body type, age, and physical condition. The testosterone levels will rise naturally. This is a proven fact.

3.Diet. If you are overweight, your penis will pay the price, along with your heart and every other critical organ. Eat plenty of fruits (in season only), and vegetables, lots of roughage (in the form of cereals), and meat sparingly. Your weight will drop naturally (without a formal diet) and you will notice your libido returning and your ability to satisfy it as well.

The next rules are SHOULDS; so keep as much to them as you can.

4.Moderate your alcoholic intake. Do not over-indulge in drinking. Hard liquor sparingly, and wines and beers with great moderation.

5.Find good vitamin and mineral supplements. It should contain most or all of the following: Vitamins A, B, B complex, C, D, and E. From minerals, look for Chromium, Selenium and Zinc. From protein, L-arginine. From enzymes, DHEA. From natural herbs, look for Damania, Dong quai, Ginger, Ginkgo Biloba, Ginseng, Gotu kola, Horny Goat Weed, Hydrangea root, Pygeum, Sarsaparilla, Saw palmetto, and Wild yam.

6.If you are alone, masturbate. You need to ejaculate often, and through masturbation, the chemicals and reactions required for keeping your penis healthy are put to use. Done properly (as in the technique called jelqing) the result is, if nothing more, an improved circulation to the penis, and use of the prostate gland for more than just continence.

A healthy penis final words

Remember the state of your penis is a good indication of your own state of health. Follow the rules above, and at any age, you will find increased testosterone in the blood, better circulation, relief from many symptoms that may now plague you, and of course, a healthier penis.